棒球投手投球速度关键影响因素
Key Factors Affecting Baseball Pitching Velocity
投稿时间:2022-12-26  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.2022122601
中文关键词:棒球投手  投球速度  运动学  动力学
英文关键词:baseball pitcher  pitching velocity  kinematics  kinetics
基金项目:奥运备战数据监测和分析平台的应用示范(22dz1204900)
作者单位
王钰婷 上海体育科学研究所(上海市反兴奋剂中心)上海 200030 国家体育总局竞技运动能力综合评定重点实验室上海 200030 
贺业磊 上海体育科学研究所(上海市反兴奋剂中心)上海 200030 
张玉峰 上海市竞技体育训练管理中心上海 202162 
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中文摘要:
      为进一步明确影响棒球投手投球速度的关键因素,通过中国知网、Web of Science和PubMed等平台以棒球投手、投球速度、运动生物力学和鞭打动作等为关键词,检索并整理归纳20世纪90年代至今的相关文献资料。通过对比国内外优秀棒球投手投球速度和专项技术能力,发现投球时投掷臂肩关节外旋角度、肩关节水平外展角度、肘关节角度、躯干前倾幅度、前腿膝关节角度等运动学指标,投掷臂各环节受力峰值、前腿受到的最大地面反作用力等动力学指标均对投球速度起关键性影响作用。教练员和棒球投手可通过改善上下肢关节角度和角速度等指标参数的大小、增强肌肉力量和柔韧性等手段,完善投手投球技术动作,提高投球速度。
英文摘要:
      In order to further clarify the key factors affecting the pitching speed of baseball pitchers, relevant literature from the 1990s up to the day was searched and summarised by using the keywords of baseball pitchers, pitching speed/velocity, sports biomechanics and whipping action from CNKI, Web of Science and PubMed data bases. By comparing the pitching speed and specialised technical ability of elite baseball pitchers at home and abroad, the study found that kinematic indexes such as shoulder external rotation angle, shoulder horizontal abduction angle, elbow joint angle, trunk forward tilt range, knee joint angle of front leg, and kinetics indexes such as peak stress of each link of throwing arm and maximum ground reaction force of front leg, have the primary effect on the pitching velocity. Therefore, the baseball coaches and pitchers can improve their pitching skills and speed by changing the size of upper and lower limb joint angles and angular velocity, enhancing muscle strength and flexibility.
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