优秀青少年运动员有氧运动能力项群特点
Event-group-characteristics of Aerobic Capacity in Elite Adolescent Athletes
Received:February 28, 2023  
DOI:10.12064/ssr.2023022802
中文关键词:青少年  有氧能力  项群  最大摄氧量
英文关键词:adolescent  aerobic capacity  event-group  VO2max
基金项目:上海市科委“科技创新行动计划”社会发展科技攻关项目(22dz1205100)
Author NameAffiliation
ZHU Rongxin Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science & Shanghai Anti-Doping Agency, Shanghai 200030 , China 
SI Wenhan Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science & Shanghai Anti-Doping Agency, Shanghai 200030 , China 
CAI Guang Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science & Shanghai Anti-Doping Agency, Shanghai 200030 , China 
YIN Xiaofeng Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science & Shanghai Anti-Doping Agency, Shanghai 200030 , China 
FENG Yu Shanghai Competitive Sports Training and Management Center, Shanghai 202162 , China 
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中文摘要:
      目的:通过分析上海地区不同项群优秀青少年有氧能力,寻找不同项群有氧能力特点。方法:选择上海市2003—2014年一线、二线运动员测试数据库,从中筛选88名16岁以上男性,年龄为(17.5±1.2)岁,103名15岁以上女性,年龄为(16.4±1.1)岁,均为国家二级以上运动员,对其最大摄氧量绝对值和相对值进行统计分析,使用单因素方差分析以及Z分值等方法比较不同性别各项群间有氧运动能力特点。结果:耐力项群最大摄氧量绝对值显著高于隔网对抗(P<0.05)与格斗对抗(P<0.01)。男性各项群间最大摄氧量相对值无显著差异;女性耐力项群最大摄氧量相对值显著高于同场对抗(P<0.01)、隔网对抗(P<0.01)与格斗对抗(P<0.01);女性同场对抗项群最大摄氧量相对值显著高于格斗对抗(P<0.05)。结论:耐力项群最大摄氧量绝对值高于其他项群;体能主导类项群最大摄氧量相对值高于技能主导类项群;同场对抗项群最大摄氧量绝对值优于相对值,其余项群最大摄氧量相对值和绝对值同步。为科学训练提供有力数据支持,教练员可以结合项群有氧运动能力特点,判断运动员的有氧工作能力水平,从而针对性地制定训练计划,提高整体竞技水平。
英文摘要:
      Objective: This study intends to find the aerobic capacity characteristics of different sport groups by reviewing the aerobic capacity test data of Elite youths in Shanghai. Methods: The database of first- and second-tier athletes tested in Shanghai from 2003-2014 was selected, from which the absolute and relative values of maximal oxygen uptake of national second-tier athletes above 16 years old (n=88, age 17.5±1.2) for males and above 15 years old (n=103, age 16.4±1.1) for females were selected for statistical analysis. One-way ANOVA and Z-scores were used to determine the characteristics of aerobic capacity between the sports in different gender. Results: The absolute values of VO2max in the endurance group (male: 4.22±0.70 L/min; female: 3.33±0.55 L/min L/min) were significantly higher than those in the net events (male: 3.48±0.48 L/min, P=0.002; female: 2.74±0.31 L/min, P=0.035) and the combat events (male: 3.38±0.49 L/ min, P=0.001; female: 2.72±0.43 L/min, P=0.007). No significant differences in the relative values of VO2max among the male groups. The relative values of VO2max in the female endurance events (56.99±9.51 mL/kg/min) were significantly higher than those in the same- field confrontation group (48.16±7.22 mL/kg/min, P=0.004), the net events (43.92±5.64 mL/kg/min, P=0.000), and the combat events (43.33±4.94 mL/kg/min, P=0.000). The relative values of VO2max were significantly higher in the female same-field confrontation item group than in the combat events (P=0. 0.028). Conclusion: The absolute values of VO2max of endurance events are higher than those of other events. The relative values of VO2max were higher in the fitness-dominated group than in the skill-dominated group. Absolute values of VO2max in the same-field confrontation events are better than relative values, the relative and absolute values of VO2max in the remaining events are synchronized. This study provides data can be used for research and training, coaches can use characteristics of VO2max in different groups to determine the athletes' aerobic work capacity, to target the training plan and improve the overall competitive level.
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